Anthropological Study of Mesolithic Findings from Mayak: An Example of Dental Morphology Diversity

DOI: 10.14673/HE2016121017

Published in Human Evolution – Vol. 31 – n.1-2 – 2016

Key words: Paleoanthropology, odontology, dental morphology, Mesolithic, Mid-Volga.

Abstract

The Upper Palaeolithic period in the Levant is divided into three chronological stages: Initial (IUP), Early (EUP) and Late (LUP). While the Initial stage is the interphase between the Middle and the Upper Paleolithic periods, it was during the EUP that modern human populations fully established them-selves in the region. The EUP consists of two techno-complex-es, the local Ahmarian tradition, and the Levantine Aurigna-cian, conceived as an intrusive culture from Europe.

Recent excavations at Manot Cave in western Galilee, Israel, have exposed rich Ahmarian and Aurignacian remains. The Ahmarian remains were found at the center of the cave su-perimposed by Aurignacian layers. They are characterized by long and narrow uni-and-bidirectional blades produced by soft hammer percussion. The tools consist of retouched blades, end scrapers and burins on blades and el-Wad points. These have been radiocarbon dated to 46-42 ka cal BP (68%). The Le-vantine Aurignacian remains, currently the dominant techno-complex at Manot, were recorded at the entrance and center of the cave. Distinctive finds include carinated and nosed end scrapers, Aurignacian blades, curved-twisted bladelets and ant-ler spear points. The radiocarbon ages of the Aurignacian layers at the entrance and center of the cave range from between 39-33 ka cal BP (68%). The EUP at Manot is represented by faunal, botanical and shell remains. The faunal assemblages consist of large-medium (ungulates) and small (birds and reptiles) game. The charred/wood remains comprise species indicating a Medi-terranean forest environment. Notably, a relatively fair amount of sea shells were recovered from the EUP contexts, some were used as personal ornaments and others consumed as food. The EUP sequence at Manot starts with the Ahmarian, followed by a repetitive Aurignacian exploitation of the cave until ca. 30 ka, which is the estimated time of the collapse of the cave entrance.

Khaldeeva, N.I.
Vasilyev, S.V.
Kharlamova, N.V.

Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology,
Russian Academy of Sciences,
Leninskiy pr. 32a,
119991 Moscow,
Russia.

The Early Upper Paleolithic Period at Manot Cave, Western Galilee, Israel

DOI: 10.14673/HE2016121016

Published in Human Evolution – Vol. 31 – n.1-2 – 2016

Key words: Manot Cave, Early Upper Palaeolithic, Ahmarian, Levantine Aurignacian.

Abstract

The Upper Palaeolithic period in the Levant is divided into three chronological stages: Initial (IUP), Early (EUP) and Late (LUP). While the Initial stage is the interphase between the Middle and the Upper Paleolithic periods, it was during the EUP that modern human populations fully established them-selves in the region. The EUP consists of two techno-complex-es, the local Ahmarian tradition, and the Levantine Aurigna-cian, conceived as an intrusive culture from Europe.

Recent excavations at Manot Cave in western Galilee, Israel, have exposed rich Ahmarian and Aurignacian remains. The Ahmarian remains were found at the center of the cave su-perimposed by Aurignacian layers. They are characterized by long and narrow uni-and-bidirectional blades produced by soft hammer percussion. The tools consist of retouched blades, end scrapers and burins on blades and el-Wad points. These have been radiocarbon dated to 46-42 ka cal BP (68%). The Le-vantine Aurignacian remains, currently the dominant techno-complex at Manot, were recorded at the entrance and center of the cave. Distinctive finds include carinated and nosed end scrapers, Aurignacian blades, curved-twisted bladelets and ant-ler spear points. The radiocarbon ages of the Aurignacian layers at the entrance and center of the cave range from between 39-33 ka cal BP (68%). The EUP at Manot is represented by faunal, botanical and shell remains. The faunal assemblages consist of large-medium (ungulates) and small (birds and reptiles) game. The charred/wood remains comprise species indicating a Medi-terranean forest environment. Notably, a relatively fair amount of sea shells were recovered from the EUP contexts, some were used as personal ornaments and others consumed as food. The EUP sequence at Manot starts with the Ahmarian, followed by a repetitive Aurignacian exploitation of the cave until ca. 30 ka, which is the estimated time of the collapse of the cave entrance.

Barzilai, O.
Excavation, Survey and Research, Israel Antiquities Authority,
POB 586, Jerusalem, Israel.

Hershkovitz, I.
The Dan David Laboratory for the Search and Study of Modern Humans,
Sackler Faculty of Medicine,
Tel Aviv University, POB 39040,
Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel.

Marder, O.
Department of Bible, Archaeology and Ancient Near Eastern Studies, Archaeology Division,
Ben-Gurion, University of the Negev,
POB 653, Beer-Sheva 8410501, Israel.

 

Cognitive Modules or Evolutionary Stages? The Relationship between Developmental and Cross-Cultural Psychology

DOI: 10.14673/HE2016121015

Published in Human Evolution – Vol. 31 – n.1-2 – 2016

Key words: Developmental/evolutionary psychology, cross-cultural-historical psychology,  ontogeny, psychological stages, children, premodern humans, social evolution, world history, modern societies.

Abstract

The founders of developmental psychology and psychoanaly-sis described resemblances between premodern adults and children. Theories based on these parallels were widespread mainly between 1840 and 1950. However, in the recent decades several authors from different disciplines have also contributed to this idea. This article examines the principal contributions to the debate over time and the conclusions drawn from empirical data. It provides an answer to the question: Do these similarities exist only between certain cognitive functions and embedded modules, or are they instead manifestations of psychological/evolutionary stages? While today many maintain that the  simi-larities between premodern adults and children of the modern age are primarily limited to cognitive structures, the arguments presented here suggest that such parallels encompass their en-tire psychological state.

Oesterdiekhoff, G.W.

Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Department of Sociology,
PO Box 6980,
76128 Karlsruhe, Germany.
Phone: (+49) 2043 31116
E-mail: oesterdiekhoff@t-online.de

 

A View from a Cave: Cueva Negra del Estrecho del Río Quípar (Caravaca de la Cruz, Murcia, Southeastern Spain). Reflections on Fire, Technological Diversity, Environmental Exploitation, and Palaeoanthropological Approaches.

DOI: 10.14673/HE2016121014

Published in Human Evolution – Vol. 31 – n.1-2 – 2016

Key words: Cueva Negra del Estrecho del Río Quípar, Palaeolithic, Modes A-I, late Early Pleistocene, fire, environment, cognitive versatility.

Abstract

Cueva Negra del Estrecho del Río Quípar overlooking the Río Quípar, a Río Segura tributary, is an upland rock-shelter 75 km north of the Mediterranean coast and 110 km west of the Se-gura river-mouth. It contains undisturbed sediment 5 m deep assigned by magnetostratigraphy to >0.78 Ma (Matuyama mag-netochron). Optically stimulated sediment luminescence dating implies ≥0.5 Ma and mammalian biochronology (notably, of Arvicolid rodents) indicates >0.7-<1 Ma. Remains include an “Acheulian” limestone “hand-axe,” and small chert, limestone or quartzite artifacts, knapped on site, often by bipolar reduc-tion or repetitive centripetal flaking of small discoidal cores. Secondarily-flaked (“retouched”) artifacts include small irregu-lar chert fragments, resembling chert at an adjacent conglom-erate outcrop according to laser-ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry of 19 lanthanide elements, though some chert may have been obtained from up to 30 km away. Faunal remains and pollen are compatible with mild (plausibly MIS-21), damp, fluvio-lacustrine environments. Evidence of fire in a deep, sealed layer includes thermally-altered, lustreless and shattered chert, and both charred and white calcined frag-ments of bone. Taphonomical analysis and electron microscopy of bone fragments attribute discolouration to burning, not to post-depositional mineral staining. Sediment geochemistry and thin-section micromorphology have been undertaken. FTIRS, TL and ESR analysis of chert and bone imply firing tempera-tures of about 500ºC at least. Drawing on findings from Cueva Negra, the purpose of this paper is to offer an interpretation of Palaeolithic activity from the perspective of hominin cogni-tive versatility, techno-manual dexterity, and palaeoeconomic extractive behaviour in long-vanished Western European pal-aeoecological and palaeobiogeographical contexts.

Walker, M.J.
Anesin, D.
Angelucci, D.
Avilés-Fernández, A.,3.a.b. Berna, F.
Buitrago-López, A.T.,5.a.b. Carrión, J.S.
Eastham, A.
Fernández-Jiménez, S.
García-Torres, J.
Haber-Uriarte, M.
López-Jiménez, A.
López-Martínez, M.V.
Martín-Lerma, I.
Ortega-Rodrigáñez, J.
Polo-Camacho, J.L.
Rhodes, S.E.
Richter, D.
Rodríguez-Estrella, T.
Romero-Sánchez, G.
San-Nicolás-del-Toro, M.
Schwenninger, J-L.
Skinner, A.R.
Van-der-Made, J.
Zack, W.