The Human Population in the Alpine Ecosystem: The Example of Bellino, Val Varaita (Province of Cuneo), Piemonte, Italy

DOI: 10.14673/IJA201511004
Published in Int. Journal of Anthropology – Vol. 30 – n.1 – 2015

Key words: Val Varaita (Bellino), mountain communities, demographic and anthropological analyses.

Abstract
The biological characteristics of human communities that have lived in isolation for many generations because of their environment, have always interested anthropologists with  regard to understanding the phenomenon of adaptation. These are the reasons that motivated some researchers from the University of Turin, in the 1970s, to undertake an interesting project aimed at creating a multidisciplinary anthropological reconstruction of human isolated groups living in the mountains. More specifically, they examined the residents of Bellino, a locality in Varaita (Province of Cuneo), Piedmont, in the north of Italy, who were considered appropriate subjects because of their history and geography. The local population at that time was made up of 432 inhabitants and research was conducted on 267 individuals: 140 men and 127 women.
This paper is a review of that research on genetic variability, with demographic and social data, highlighting events that have influenced the social anthropology of past and future generations in Varaita.

Minaldi D., Rabino Massa E.
Department of Life Sciences and
Systems Biology, University of Turin,
Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin, Italy.
E-mail: donatella.minaldi@unito.it

Chiarelli B.
International Institute for Humankind Studies, Laboratory of Anthropology& Ethnology, University of Florence, Via del Proconsolo 12, 50122 Florence, Italy.

The Population of Polotsk in the 17-18th Centuries According to Anthropological Data

DOI: 10.14673/IJA201511003
Published in Int. Journal of Anthropology – Vol. 30 – n.1 – 2015

Key words: paleoanthropology, craniology, osteology, skeletal proportions, bone robusticity, Polotsk, Belarus.

Abstract
The objective of our research was the complex study of the 17- 18th century palaeoanthropological series of specimens from Polotsk. The specimens were obtained as a result of archaeological excavations in the territory of the Polotsk fortified settlement. These excavations yielded the skeletal remains of 48 human skeletons in various conditions. The craniological specimens from the burials represent 43 skulls: 14 male, 10 female and 19 children, 20 of which (14 male and 6 female) turned out to be suitable for measuring in accordance with the craniometric program. We also measured and subsequently analysed postcranial skeletons on the basis of robusticity and hardness indices of the long bones of arms and legs. We selected 21 skeletons of adult subjects for our osteometric study. We mea- sured 13 male and 8 female postcranial skeletons.
We have established morphological similarity between the Polotsk population and the rural population of Lukoml, which denotes genetic relations between the townsmen and the local population of the Polotsk vicinity.
The average value of intravital body length in males was 165.9 cm. and in females 155.4 cm. Males were more often characterized by a comparatively shortened forearm compared to the shoulder, according to the value of the brachial index. The male group were characterized by very flattened radii with a well pronounced interosseous crest. The females, on the contrary, had slightly flattened bones with a not very pronounced interosseous crest.

Borutskaya, S.B.
Department of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.
E-mail: vasbor1@yandex.ru

Vasilyev, S.V.
Department of Physical Anthropology,
N.N. Miklukho-Maklai Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology,
The Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

Yemialyanchyk V.A.
Department of National and World History,
Polotsk State University, Polotsk, Republic of Belarus.

Tribal People are More Susceptible to HIV Infection than Other Social Groups in West Bengal, India.

DOI: 10.14673/IJA201511002
Published in Int. Journal of Anthropology – Vol. 30 – n.1 – 2015

Keywords: HIV infection, tribes, West Bengal, India.

Abstract
There are 705 tribes in India located in five major tribal belts across the country. Jhargram is the main tribal area. However, there are no studies on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS infection in these areas. Therefore, the present study was conducted to report the prevalence of HIV infection among the people of the tribal dominated areas of West Bengal. Overall, in the present study, 9.9% of the people were found to be infected with HIV. It was observed that the prevalence of HIV infection was significantly higher among tribal people (16.3%) than among the higher hereditary castes (general cast 3.9%). More impor- tantly, the prevalence of HIV infection was identical in Other Backward Class (OBC) (10.0 %) and Scheduled Castes (SC) (10.0%). Furthermore, the rate of HIV infection rose with social class (x2=13.801, p<0.001). Moreover, tribal peoples were 4.8 (odds ratio (OR)= 4.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91– 12.55) times more likely of contracting the HIV virus than the general castes. And have a 1.75 (OR (OBC) = 1.75, 95% CI: 0.76 – 4.09; OR (SC) = 1.75 95% CI: 0.71 – 4.44) times greater risk of contracting the HIV virus than the OBC and SC, respectively (in the present study among the population of West Bengal, India). Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) play a fundamental role in educating these groups and raising awareness. However, more AIDS awareness education in tribal languages is urgently needed.

Pratihar, S.
Assistant Professor, Department of Zoology,
Sukumar Sengupta Mahavidalaya, Keshpur Midnapore-721150.
West Bengal, India.
E-mail: pratihar_vu@rediffmail.com

Ecological Adaptations of the Kola Peninsula Neolithic People: Postcranial Morphology and Paleopathology

DOI: 10.14673/IJA201511001
Published in Int. Journal of Anthropology – Vol. 30 – n.1 (1-19) – 2015

Key words: paleopathology, caries, enamel hypoplasia, cold stress.

Abstract
To examine biological adaptations to northern latitudes in Neolithic human populations of the Kola Peninsula, we compared the skeleton proportions, bone robusticity and pathological changes of the Bolshoy Oleniy Island skeletal series with those of Sami from the 19-20th centuries, who occupied the northern Kola Peninsula. The burial ground on Bolshoy Oleniy Island in the Barents sea dates to around 3500 years ago. The specific values of body length parameters and proportion indices of the extremities, suggest that the Sami people were better adapted to the environment of the Far North than the Bolshoy Oleniy islanders. On the other hand, the extremities of the Bolshoy Oleniy islanders were much longer than those of the Sami people of the Kola Peninsula.
Porosity of the skull cap, facial skeleton and postcranial bones, periodontitis with enamel hypoplasia, and traces of traumas and periostitis of the shin bones were typical pathologies of the skeletons of the Oleniy island people, as well as the Sami. A characteristic feature, however, of the Oleniy Island people’s health was a nearly 100% absence of caries. The Sami of the northern Kola Peninsula evidenced much more frequent dentoalveolar pathologies. One third of the individuals buried on Bolshoy Oleniy Island had markers of childhood rickets on their bones. Diseases affecting both the Oleniy Island people and the Sami were most likely caused by a low level of insolation and the resulting deficiency in vitamin D production, as well as cold stress, a lack of vegetables in their diet, and hence, the lack of necessary vitamins.

Vasilyev, S.V.
Head of the Department of Physical Anthropology,N.N.Miklukho-Maklai Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospekt, 32а, Moscow, Russia.
E-mail: vasbor1@yandex.ru.

Borutskaya, S.B.
Chair of Anthropology,
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 1, Building, 12, Moscow, Russia.
E-mail: vasbor1@yandex.ru.