Published in Human Evolution – Vol. 31 – n.1-2 – 2016
Key words: Developmental/evolutionary psychology, cross-cultural-historical psychology, ontogeny, psychological stages, children, premodern humans, social evolution, world history, modern societies.
The founders of developmental psychology and psychoanaly-sis described resemblances between premodern adults and children. Theories based on these parallels were widespread mainly between 1840 and 1950. However, in the recent decades several authors from different disciplines have also contributed to this idea. This article examines the principal contributions to the debate over time and the conclusions drawn from empirical data. It provides an answer to the question: Do these similarities exist only between certain cognitive functions and embedded modules, or are they instead manifestations of psychological/evolutionary stages? While today many maintain that the simi-larities between premodern adults and children of the modern age are primarily limited to cognitive structures, the arguments presented here suggest that such parallels encompass their en-tire psychological state.
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