Once humankind spoke like children do Developmental psychology explains the history of language

Oesterdiekhoff G.W., Human Evolution – Vol.33 – 1-2-2018

Theories of ethnosyntax and evolutionary approaches to language have described certain patterns of many languages partially spoken by today missing features known among the so-called full grammar languages. There are languages without subordinate clauses, embedding, recursion, passive, plural, many tenses, etc. Likewise research found that even the full grammar languages of today have a past where they likewise shared these simpler traits, having gone through several processes of grammaticalization during certain historical periods. More, research found resemblances to language acquisition in ontogeny. During certain stages of language acquisition modern children share traits with those of archaic languages, a fact already known by some fathers of language research. This article here shows that neither universal grammar theory nor evolutionary respectively Darwinian approaches to language can explain these parallels. It is argued that developmental psychology and Piagetian cross-cultural psychology can explain these parallels. Modern children do not recapitulate the history of language, as Haeckel once believed, but conversely, preoperational stage structures in the mind both of children and ancient humans cause the parallels in language and grammar. Therefore, the knowledge of developmental psychology concerning the psychology of the preoperational stage is necessary in order to explain each single pattern of language and grammar on their earlier stages on the one side and the emergence of full grammar language on the other side. The article gives an overview over a wide range of parallels concerning language patterns, coming to the conclusion that developmental psychology delivers the foundations both to linguistics and the description of the history of language.

Oesterdiekhoff G.W.
Department of Sociology Karlsruhe
Institute for Technology Karlsruhe,
E-mail: Oesterdiekhoff@t-online.de

DOI: 10.14673/HE2018121040

The first scientific revolution Developmental psychology as the fundamental theory to all human and social sciences

Oesterdiekhoff G.W., Human Evolution – Vol.33 – 1-2-2018

Several authors of the past have already maintained that developmental psychology might be in future the fundamental theory to all human and social disciplines. These authors based their idea upon the observation of far-reaching and striking similarities of psychological structures between children and ancient humans. These similarities might explain the historically earlier forms of society, culture, politics, law, morals, and religion as manifestations of psychological stage structures of ancient human beings, while the more recent forms of these phenomena have originated in the risen psychological stage structures of modern human beings. However, the current human and social disciplines provide instead that the human being always had had the same rational structure respectively had had the same anthropological stage, in opposition to that what the developmental approach might provide and claim. This article here shows that the developmental approach actually has the capacity to rebuild every single human and social discipline upon new foundations and to impart to them breakthroughs regarding knowledge discovery and theory construction. The developmental approach basically revolutionizes the theoretical foundations in every single human and social science. More, it unifies them under one common roof and breakes apart the known boundaries, thus defining interdisciplinarity in a completely new way.

Oesterdiekhoff G.W.
Department of Sociology Karlsruhe
Institute for Technology Karlsruhe,
E-mail: Oesterdiekhoff@t-online.de

DOI: 10.14673/HE2018121039

Finnish-Ugric Populations: Genetics and Phylogenesis

Nazarova A.F., Human Evolution – Vol.33 – 1-2-2018

There are calculated the genetic distances of 18 Finnish-Ugric and some other populations on 28 alleles of proteins, enzymes and blood groups. There are constructed the dendrogram of relationship of investigated populations on basis those data. The branch of big cluster in which Saami are included, included also Finnish-Ugric populations, Russians, and modern inhabitants of North Asia: Evenks, Nganasans, Yakuts, Altaians and Mongols. Cluster of Finnish-Ugric and North Mongoloids is divided for two subclusters, one included Finns, Estonians, Hungarians, Russians, Komi, Chuvashes, Udmurtians, Nentsi, Tatars; other subcluster included Mari, Mansi, Mongols, Altaians, Yakuts, Evenks and Nganasans. Earlier I was published conception in which there are suggested on basis the data on protein polymorphism and data of another authors about mitochondrial DNA polymorphism, that populations of Caucasoids, North Mongoloids and ancestors of American Indians were originated from one ancestor Asiatic population. Data of archaeology and molecular genealogy are supported my hypothesis about palaeoasiatic origin of Finnish-Ugric populations.

Nazarova A.F.
Dr.Sci. Biology, Senior Scientist,
Institute of Ecology and Evolution,
Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow,
E-mail: afnazar@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.14673/HE2018121038

Behaviorally Induced Change in Post-cranial (Upper Ankle Joint) Morphology: Phenotypic Plasticity in an Altered Habitat

Turley K., Frost S.R., Human Evolution – Vol. 33 – 1-2-2018

The interplay of behavior and radical habitat change and its effect on skeletal morphology is examined among Macaca populations using Generalized Procrustes, Relative Warps, and Singular Warp analyses of the Talo-crural (upper ankle) joint. Forty-six osteological specimens of matched tali and tibiae from three species of Macaca formed the study group (7 M. thibetana, 10 M. fascicularis and 29 M. mulatta) with documented provenience and generational data for captive specimens.   Four subgroups of M. mulatta were compared: wild shot (5), captive populations in caged (5) or open facilities (7), and a multigenerational free-ranging facility (12).  The Null Hypotheses: No significant difference in shape was tested using singular warp analysis.
All three species differed in shape, a result consistent with prior studies, their genetics and habitats. Among M. mulatta subgroups only the multigenerational free-ranging subgroup was significantly different.  Wild shot, caged and open facility specimens clustered at the negative, flexible pole of the singular warp vector, while free-ranging multigenerational specimens clustering at the positive pole with talo-crural shape more stable.
Behavioral change over multiple generations may result in alteration in post-cranial shape (talo-crural joint shape) when habitat radically changes, phenotypic plasticity an important mechanism.

Turley K., Frost S.R.
Department of Anthropology,
University of Oregon
Behavior, Habitat and Morphology
451 Covey Lane, Eugene,
Oregon 97401
E-mail: kturley@uoregon.edu

DOI: 10.14673/HE2018121036

Why should mitochondria define species?

Stoeckle M.Y., Thaler D.S.

More than a decade of DNA barcoding encompassing about five million specimens covering 100,000 animal species supports the generalization that mitochondrial DNA clusters largely overlap with species as defined by domain experts. Most barcode clustering reflects synonymous substitutions. What evolutionary mechanisms account for synonymous clusters being largely coincident with species? The answer depends on whether variants are phenotypically neutral. To the degree that variants are selectable, purifying selection limits variation within species and neighboring species may have distinct adaptive peaks. Phenotypically neutral variants are only subject to demographic processes—drift, lineage sorting, genetic hitchhiking, and bottlenecks. The evolution of modern humans has been studied from several disciplines with detail unique among animal species.  Mitochondrial barcodes provide a commensurable way to compare modern humans to other animal species. Barcode variation in the modern human population is quantitatively similar to that within other animal species. Several convergent lines of evidence show that mitochondrial diversity in modern humans follows from sequence uniformity followed by the accumulation of largely neutral diversity during a population expansion that began approximately 100,000 years ago. A straightforward hypothesis is that the extant populations of almost all animal species have arrived at a similar result consequent to a similar process of expansion from mitochondrial uniformity within the last one to several hundred thousand years.

Stoeckle M.Y.
Program for the Human Environment
The Rockefeller University
1230 York AVE
New York, NY 10065
Email: mark.stoeckle@rockefeller.edu

Thaler D.S.
Biozentrum, University of Basel Klingelbergstrasse 50/70
CH – 4056 Basel
Email: david.thaler@unibas.ch

DOI: 10.14673/HE2018121037



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